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The history of [calligraphy] 2
/  Inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces 1

In 1899 of the last years of Ch'ing,
Wang Yi rong of the epigraphist who lived in Beijing was troubled by chronic malaria.
He used a specific medicine of malaria called "the carina" habitually in those days.
I’ts called the fossil bones such as mammals "a carina" from ancient times in China,
I valued it high as medicine materials.
Probably it is expected that there were a great variety of "carinas" under Wang Yi rong.
One day with the Liu iron cloud that Wang Yi rong freeloaded as a freeloader in his pupils,
I have begun to do work to powder "a carina" as always.
then,
"Teacher! Something is cut on this keel, isn't it possibly the character??"
"Which which ..., u~n, this may be ancient letters"
A shiver must have run through the mind of two people with the memorizing in epigraphy.
There is more it and demands "the carina" that the thing like the letter was chopped, and two people are collections of,
He look and am convinced that this must be ancient characters.

Liu performs collection of "a carina" after unexpected death of Wang Yi rong more,
He selected carefully and took the rubbed copy and announced 1,058 slices as "tie yun storehouse tortoise" from the inside more than 5,000 points.


Liu tie yun

In this wayInscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces But, when I am shown in the world,
Of the then society will come into the limelight.
The able researcher has begun to participate in a study one after another.


comfort Watch

On the other hand,
When former bone is widely known to the world, and former bone collection becomes the boom,
The antiquary who treated former bone has begun to lift the price of the former bone.
A lot of people of collection were curious about the source to collect former bones cheaply, but,
The antiquary is evasive and does not reveal the source,
Rather I let I showed a false place, and people of collection confuse.
It was trade secrets of the antiquary.

Another,
Villagers have begun to be enthusiastic in trench RI of oracle bones at the agricultural district which is an authorship place by the oracle bones.
If argument was frequent among farmers with a landowner over a right of the former bone excavation, it was just and reached it.
Farmers,
To raise the value of "the carina" conventionally,
What I sharpened a surface letter and dropped it, and was clear
When when "the carina" that the thing like the letter was chopped sells with a high price, I am widely known,
An imitation made by engraving letters on a blank not carved has started to be made.
Such an imitation is left even today.

Luo Zhen Yu (friend of Liu tie yun) and Wang Guo wei(son-in-law of Luo Zhen Yu) consolidated the foundations of oracle bones science.


Luo Zhen Yu Wang Guo wei

Luo Zhen Yu collect former bones widely,and writes “yin shang zhen ト wen zi kao”.
Through the hardship that he varies for 1,910 years,
The source of the former bone locates it with the agriculture ghost town called small, hanging of the Anyang prefecture.
This was an epoch-making splendid achievement to be left of the history.
There is description in "Shiji(Historical Memoirs )“,
"Xiang Yu interviewed Tin’s general.r at yin xu”
Small, hanging was called yin xu for a long time and tied legendary yin xu to actual yin xu.


Wind Flower blandishments

Luo Zhen Yu and Wang Guowei,
When Qing dynasty collapses by Shingai Revolution, I take refuge in Japan.
Luo Zhen brings the former bone document which I collected into Japan,
I repeat a study during exile in Japan and announce the book in sequence,
I build the basics of inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces decoding.

With the name of the emperor that Wang Guowei is written down on the former rib,
I found that the genealogy of the emperor of the Yin in "Historical Memoirs" almost accorded.
As yin xu actual in yin xu legendary as for this and a thing to demonstrate,
and raised the value of inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces which kicked of the ancient history study still more.

In 1928, Finding in large-scale Inkyo by a group of sumiresakuhin has started.
The excavation of ten several times was carried out until it was stopped by Japan-China War.
Container bone here including former bone of 25,000 a palace trace, a copper utensil, a jade vessel, a stone implement,
Furthermore, King graves are excavated from the suburbs of small, hanging,
The real existence of the legendary Yin dynasty described in "Shiji" was proved.

Of the former bone document which is enormous as for the violet product guest later arrange it, and finish "the Yin calendar music".
Former bone for more than 2 centuries from print, a style of handwriting, grammar,
I did classification division for five quarters from early wǔīg to terminal emperor second, dìhò.


Jin zuo bin  Guo mo ruo

Another person who achieved bright result is Guo Moruo with the profound knowledge that is deep to inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces.
He discussed ancient China in original historical view, but quoted inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces in the historical investigation widely.
What was published “jia gu wen he” (collection of first) which was similar for all former bones inclusion discovered till then in 1979,
Guo Moruo who pushed it forward mainly on this editing dies in the last year.

160,000 slices of former bones which were discovered by then
The number of inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces approximately 4,500,
The letter which is decoded approximately 2,000,
is said.


A person from Yin is religious and does typical theocracy in Yin morning,
All the important decision making was based on fortune-telling.
It is the shoulder blade of hexangular figure Luo and a cow and the deer to have been used for the fortune-telling.
There are unusually a staghorn, the example of the human skull, too.
Attack the conical hollow in the backside such as these bones, shells,
I insert a firebrand (said to be the metal bar made by the bronze which I heated) in the hollow.
I carved fortune-telling, a judgment in former bone in the form of the crack of the crazing that occurred in the right side.
Furthermore, the result for the fortune-telling was carved with, too.
These letters are inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces.



The contents of fortune-telling written down to the inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces amount to a festival, war, farming, hunting, personnel affairs, delivery, a disease, weather.
As well as fortune-telling, the descriptions such as a calendar, the safekeeping of the former bone are rarely seen, too.

As for what is surprised, these do not remain for a simple record,
In cunning beauty such as the placement of the letter, the constitution,
The aesthetic sense of the ancients is had a glimpse of.
We are charmed by high artistry and are surprised today,
Something like mind to pursue beauty regardless of the ancient and modern times,
It will be hidden in human depth.



Fish child  Dance play

Thus, the existence of the Yin dynasty was clarified as a historical fact,
In the later study
Existence of a dynasty in front of the yin dynasty and a hsia dynasty is also becoming clear.
By 1990, 41 times of two village head remains in total were excavated.
Two places of Palace site, habitation site more than 50, Workshop site of the bronze ware, a large quantity of bronze ware,
Tile decorations made by the bronze which gave inlay of the turquoise are excavated,
The accuracy that there was the dynasty of Hsia to two village heads increased.
As for the period of the dynasty of Hsia, I am considered to be "B.C. 1600 from B.C. 2070".
The thing demonstrating existence of the dynasty of Hsia like the former bone in the Yin dynasty does not seem to be found.
Furthermore, in 2004,
It is reported that huge Palace site thought to be an Imperial castle of the dynasty of Hsia was discovered.
However, the break with inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces is not yet buried that it seems to be the above-mentioned sign, mark, crest.



References cited
Kodansha: It is appreciated the sumi beauty from old handwriting to modern calligraphy
House of Tokyo calligraphy study: The history of the book
An art newspaper publisher: History of calligraphy in China
Jew's-ear company: History of calligraphy in China (the first volume) (the second volume)
Nigensya: Middle federal law book choice
An art newspaper publisher: Trip of the history of calligraphy in China
Daisyuukan: The history of the kanji
Heibonsha Publishers Ltd.: Jitou
Heibonsha Publishers Ltd.: 100 selections of masterful drawings